Tor.com content by

Megan N. Fontenot

The Mother Goddess of Middle-earth

In this biweekly series, we’re exploring the evolution of both major and minor figures in Tolkien’s legendarium, tracing the transformations of these characters through drafts and early manuscripts through to the finished work. This week’s installment looks at Yavanna Kementári, one of the most powerful of the Valar, known as the Lady of the Wide Earth.

Yavanna is an artist. Among the Valar, most of whom are also artists, she stands out for her compassionate representation of the voiceless, her commitment to peaceful intercession, and her willingness to keep in mind (literally, as we will see) the bodies of even the smallest and most overlooked in Arda. She is called Kementari, Queen of the Earth, and, in earlier drafts, Palurien and Bladorwen, which signifies “the wide earth” or “Mother Earth” (The Lays of Beleriand, hereafter LB, 196). Thus in the cosmology and mythology of Arda she represents the earth goddess, a role which is intimately related to her activity and artistry. She might also be described as a fertility goddess; this role similarly draws together her identities of mother and artist—she is a (pro)creator. She brings forth life.

[Read more]

Exploring the People of Middle-earth: Elanor Gamgee

In this biweekly series, we’re exploring the evolution of both major and minor figures in Tolkien’s legendarium, tracing the transformations of these characters through drafts and early manuscripts through to the finished work. This week’s installment takes a look at Elanor Gamgee, the eldest daughter of Samwise and Rosie.

Elanor Gamgee, eldest daughter of Sam and Rose, gets little enough exposure in The Lord of the Rings. We know she is born on March 25, the first day of the new year according to the Gondorian calendar, and of course the date of the Fall of Sauron. Her name is Elvish in origin. In fact, Sam and Frodo name her together, after the “sun-star” flower they saw in Lothlórien, because (as Frodo says) “Half the maidchildren in the Shire are called by” flower names. Sam hints that he wanted to name her after someone they met in their travels, but admits that such names are “a bit too grand for daily wear and tear.”

[Read more]

Exploring the People of Middle-earth: The “Absolutely Essential” Rosie Cotton

In this biweekly series, we’re exploring the evolution of both major and minor figures in Tolkien’s legendarium, tracing the transformations of these characters through drafts and early manuscripts through to the finished work. This week’s installment takes a look at Rosie Cotton.

Absolutely essential.” There are a number of characters and relationships that I’d immediately tag as “absolutely essential” to my understanding of The Lord of the Rings. Frodo and Sam’s, of course, along with that of Merry and Pippin, and perhaps at a pinch the four of them together. The Legolas—Gimli dynamic seems to me to be central to at least one of the book’s projects, and that of Aragorn and Arwen to another. Faramir’s relationship to his brother and father is important if you want to really understand his deal—though of course for the book as a whole, the most important familial dynamic might be the one between Bilbo and Frodo.

[Read more]

Exploring the People of Middle-earth: Lobelia Sackville-Baggins, an Unexpected Hero

In this biweekly series, we’re exploring the evolution of both major and minor figures in Tolkien’s legendarium, tracing the transformations of these characters through drafts and early manuscripts through to the finished work. This week’s installment takes a look at the story of Lobelia Sackville-Baggins, connoisseur of silver spoons and wielder of umbrellas.

Ah, Lobelia. When I first decided to write about the matriarch of the Sackville-Bagginses, I knew there wasn’t going to be much information to work with (turns out there was only a little more than I thought). She only makes a few appearances in The Lord of the Rings, and in most of these she and her family are presented in a fairly unpleasant light. To many, she comes off as snobbish, snide, and generally rude. It’s impossible to deny that she has a predilection for silver spoons and is…well, a bit of a kleptomaniac.

But Lobelia is one of only a few Hobbit women who are given more than a momentary glance in Middle-earth, and a compelling character in her own right. And what’s more, her narrative arc illustrates beautifully some of the more important lessons The Lord of the Rings has to teach, as she becomes an unlikely hero to those who had consistently refused to give her a chance.

[Read more]

Exploring the People of Middle-earth: Nienna, the Mourning Vala

In this biweekly series, we’re exploring the evolution of both major and minor figures in Tolkien’s legendarium, tracing the transformations of these characters through drafts and early manuscripts through to the finished work. This week’s installment takes a look at the story of Nienna, a queen of the Vala who mourns the hurts of the world around her.

Most weeks, making a decision about which Tolkien character to highlight is difficult, at best. There are just so many to choose from, so many fascinating stories that are just calling out to be told. This week, though, the answer was simple. It’s been a difficult year for many of us. We have endured long separations from those we love; we have lost much, suffered much, and grieved much. For many of us, that grieving process will be long, and it won’t go away with the coming of a new year, the end of quarantine, or even the end of the virus. Even the holidays have a muted cast this year. Who better, then, to escort us through the final shadows of 2020 than Nienna, Vala of sorrow?

[Read more]

Exploring the People of Middle-earth: Fingolfin, High King of the Noldor

In this biweekly series, we’re exploring the evolution of both major and minor figures in Tolkien’s legendarium, tracing the transformations of these characters through drafts and early manuscripts through to the finished work. This week’s installment takes a look at the story of Fingolfin, high king of Noldor, who challenged Morgoth to single combat before the gates of Angband.

The ride of Fingolfin across Dor-nu-Fauglith to Angband’s gates is unforgettable. So too is the image of the elven king pounding upon the great gates of the dark fortress, blowing great blasts upon a silver horn, demanding that Morgoth show his face and join him in single combat. Of all the many characters scattered throughout the pages of The Silmarillion, Fingolfin is one of a handful that has always captured my imagination, so it was quite a surprise when I realized that I hadn’t yet written about him. It was an oversight that needed instant remedying.

[Read more]

Exploring the People of Middle-earth: Arwen Undómiel, Evenstar of Her People

In this biweekly series, we’re exploring the evolution of both major and minor figures in Tolkien’s legendarium, tracing the transformations of these characters through drafts and early manuscripts through to the finished work. This week’s installment takes a look at the story of Arwen Undómiel, specifically addressing her special connection to Lúthien Tinúviel.

Arwen Undómiel is well known as the Evenstar of her people and the wife of Aragorn, but for all her significance as a symbol, her role in The Lord of the Rings is shockingly small. Today, we’re going to take a look at the development of her character throughout the drafts of the tale, and we’ll supplement those sources with some of Tolkien’s letters, in trying to finally make sense of Arwen’s place in Middle-earth.

[Read more]

Exploring the People of Middle-earth: Boromir the Brave

In this biweekly series, we’re exploring the evolution of both major and minor figures in Tolkien’s legendarium, tracing the transformations of these characters through drafts and early manuscripts through to the finished work. This week’s installment takes a look at the tragic tale of Boromir of Gondor, the bold son of Denethor who meets his end protecting Merry and Pippin from the Orcs of Saruman.

When faced with critics who accused The Lord of the Rings of being morally “simple-minded,” lacking in ethical complexity, Tolkien would point to Boromir as proof against such claims (Letters 197). Boromir, he argued, illustrates that even fundamentally good people have faults, make mistakes, and sometimes, are capable of great moral failings. But if this is true, then Boromir is also proof that those failings can be overcome, forgiven, and (in the heroic code of Middle-earth) paid for by self-sacrificial courage. The temptation of Boromir, his fall, and his redemption through his heroics and a sort of sacramental confession to Aragorn make for a powerful story, one that readers find hard to forget.

It is hardly surprising that Tolkien did not arrive at such a powerful narrative arc right away. The story of Boromir, like that of many other characters, was one that grew in the telling.

[Read more]

The Complex Evolution of Sauron — Craftsman, Ring-giver, and Dark Lord

Sauron is one of Tolkien’s best-known and most terrifying villains. Fire and demons, darkness inescapable, and the pull of the Ring of Power surround him; he is often visualized (if incorrectly) as a great flaming Eye and, as a Lord of Middle-earth, stretches his power across the lands seeking again the One Ring. Many names are his, and yet he is the Nameless One. He is called Annatar, Zigūr, Thû, Gorthû, the Necromancer, Wizard, Magician, lieutenant of Morgoth, Lord of Wolves, King of Kings, Lord of the World. He is one of only a small handful of characters to play a significant part in tales of Arda from the creation of the universe through to the last of the tales of Middle-earth. At first he plays lackey, but with the ages his power increases and he rightly earns the title of Dark Lord from Morgoth, his master.

Sauron is unique for a number of reasons. Unlike many other of Tolkien’s creations, his conception remains relatively stable throughout the legendarium, and because of this he is also one of the few to experience complex and radical development across that same period. His journey from uncorrupted spirit to last of the great mythological evils to threaten Arda is therefore fascinating and worth a closer look.

[Read more]

Exploring the People of Middle-earth: Pippin, the Fool of a Took!

In this biweekly series, we’re exploring the evolution of both major and minor figures in Tolkien’s legendarium, tracing the transformations of these characters through drafts and early manuscripts through to the finished work. This week’s installment takes a look at Peregrin Took, the beloved Pippin whose clueless wonder lightens the heart in many dark places.

Pippin always seems to be an obvious choice for favorite among the hobbits, especially for young readers of The Lord of the Rings. He’s funny, naïve, endlessly loyal: rash with a dash of Tookish bravery (or foolishness) that often lands him in unfortunate situations. His endearing relationship with Gandalf is another point in his favor, for though the wizard only grudgingly accepts Pippin’s energetic, youthful failures, he also slowly comes to bond with the young hobbit in a grouchy, grandfatherly sort of way. Pippin plagues the ancient wizard, and they both know it. But it’s not as if Pippin remains a stagnant character who experiences no growth or maturity over the course of the narrative.

[Read more]

Exploring the People of Middle-earth: Théoden the Renewed

In this biweekly series, we’re exploring the evolution of both major and minor figures in Tolkien’s legendarium, tracing the transformations of these characters through drafts and early manuscripts through to the finished work. This week’s installment takes a look at Théoden, son of Thengel, King of Rohan and a champion in the fight against Sauron.

King Théoden of Rohan is undoubtedly one of the most influential figures of the Third Age, despite the fact that his greatest deeds were accomplished in the last few weeks of his life. Without his stout courage and compelling leadership, Gondor and the West would surely have fallen into Shadow. Théoden’s career is brief but brilliant: one that, in the end, proves to be nothing short of glorious.

[Read more]

Exploring the People of Middle-earth: Meriadoc Brandybuck, the Quiet One

In this biweekly series, we’re exploring the evolution of both major and minor figures in Tolkien’s legendarium, tracing the transformations of these characters through drafts and early manuscripts through to the finished work. This week’s installment takes a look at Meriadoc Brandybuck, hobbit of the Shire and squire of Rohan.

I don’t remember Merry Brandybuck leaving much of an impression the first few times I read The Lord of the Rings. He’s quiet, unobtrusive, and does nothing quite as eye-catching or memorable as many of the other characters. Apart from his (relatively) accidental heroism at the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, Merry tends to recede into the background. But, the more I read The Lord of the Rings, the more I am struck by Merry’s quiet constancy, his willing to do the task at hand. Merry is, if anything, competent. Merry is prepared.

[Read more]

Exploring the People of Middle-earth: Ulmo, Lord of Waters (Part 2)

In this biweekly series, we’re exploring the evolution of both major and minor figures in Tolkien’s legendarium, tracing the transformations of these characters through drafts and early manuscripts through to the finished work. This week’s installment is the second in a mini-series exploring the Vala Ulmo, Lord and Wielder of Waters, Dweller of the Deep, the Pourer: the god at whose prompting Gondolin was founded and through whose protection Eärendil made his renowned journey to the Undying Lands.

In our last installment, we explored Ulmo’s character and personality, specifically looking at his close connection with Ilúvatar’s music and with water. In that article, I wanted to make especially clear that fact that Ulmo is unique among the Valar. He sees further, for one thing, and this allows him to approach difficult situations with a sense of grace, justice, and good that are on a cosmic scale. His judgments are therefore often wiser than those of his fellow Powers of Arda; Ulmo plays the long game. I think this also means that Ulmo, more than any other Valar, knows precisely what is at stake in the war against Morgoth. He isn’t deceived: he knows the threat Morgoth poses, as well as the fact that Ilúvatar is more than capable of handling any weapon or machination the Enemy has in his wheelhouse.

Today, we’re going to continue our examination of Ulmo by taking a look at the role he plays in the historical narrative of Arda.

[Read more]

Exploring the People of Middle-earth: Ulmo, Lord of Waters (Part 1)

In this biweekly series, we’re exploring the evolution of both major and minor figures in Tolkien’s legendarium, tracing the transformations of these characters through drafts and early manuscripts through to the finished work. This week’s installment is the first in a mini-series exploring the Vala Ulmo, Lord and Wielder of Waters, Dweller of the Deep, the Pourer: the god at whose prompting Gondolin was founded and through whose protection Eärendil made his renowned journey to the Undying Lands.

Despite playing little more than a supporting role in Middle-earth’s great dramas, Ulmo casts a long shadow—even for a god. Read through The Silmarillion and The History of Middle-earth and you’ll get the distinct impression that the Lord of Waters is a force to be reckoned with. And not because he’s constantly showing off his power; rather, it’s because he sees far more clearly than his peers and sets his pieces in motion before anyone else realizes there’s a game to be played.

[Read more]

Exploring the People of Middle-earth: Sam Gamgee, Hero and Servant

In this biweekly series, we’re exploring the evolution of both major and minor figures in Tolkien’s legendarium, tracing the transformations of these characters through drafts and early manuscripts through to the finished work. This week’s installment explores the role of Samwise Gamgee, one of the celebrated heroes of The Lord of the Rings.

Sam Gamgee is, without a doubt, one of J.R.R. Tolkien’s most beloved characters. The simple hobbit’s journey from wide-eyed gardener with an inexplicable fascination with Elves to a hero hardened—but not crushed—by toil and suffering moves readers to both fondness and awe. Few can forget that stirring moment when Sam, bowed by exhaustion, thirst, and despair, lifts the incapacitated Frodo to his shoulders and hikes the winding road up Mount Doom. Tolkien himself, in a parenthetical remark, called Samwise the “chief hero” of The Lord of the Rings (Letters 161). In another place, Tolkien wrote that Sam was, of the five major hobbit-characters, the most representative of his race despite the education he received from Bilbo; this, Tolkien admitted, made him “lovable and laughable” if also infuriating and irritating (Letters 329).

[Read more]

Our Privacy Notice has been updated to explain how we use cookies, which you accept by continuing to use this website. To withdraw your consent, see Your Choices.