Apr 24 2013 12:00pm

Malazan Re-read of the Fallen: Toll the Hounds, Chapter Four

Malazan Re-read of the Fallen Toll The Hounds Steven EriksonWelcome to the Malazan Re-read of the Fallen! Every post will start off with a summary of events, followed by reaction and commentary by your hosts Bill and Amanda (with Amanda, new to the series, going first), and finally comments from readers. In this article, we’ll cover Chapter Four of Toll the Hounds (TtH).

A fair warning before we get started: We’ll be discussing both novel and whole-series themes, narrative arcs that run across the entire series, and foreshadowing. Note: The summary of events will be free of major spoilers and we’re going to try keeping the reader comments the same. A spoiler thread has been set up for outright Malazan spoiler discussion.




Traveller lands ashore, his ship wrecked in the shallows, and is almost immediately attacked by a plains bear (“driven here”), which he kills and eats. He heads inland.


Nimander, Skintick, and Desra debate power. Nimander worries about Nenanda and how Clip is influencing him, then is tormented by the two voices in his head, his lover and Phaed, speaking to him. The group reaches fields of strange plants fed by corpses wrapped in rags dripping black fluid. They can see thousands of such “scarecrows” over distant fields. They head toward the town beyond the fields and are met by a priest of the Dying God, who tells them the former cities of the Pannion are rising in this new age of Saemankelyk, and that the Dying God’s body lies in the city of Bastion. He mistakes them for traders from Black Coral. Clip says he wants to travel to Bastion to see this god.


Seerdomin makes his way through the city to the Great Barrow. At the barrow, he prays the same prayer he does every day, asking not for redemption but giving the Redeemer his “paltry” gift of company to aid the Redeemer in his great loneliness. He asks the Redeemer to bless the pilgrims with peace. Afterward, the High Priestess, a young woman, speaks to him, calling him the “Benighted,” which she says is a title of respect and that they believe the Redeemer has chosen him to guard this children. He tells her he refuses the responsibility and leaves.


Endest Silann flashes back to when he was an acolyte in the Temple of Mother Dark entering Kharkanas during a time of chaos. The city is riven by civil war, corpses line the streets, in the sky colors and light “spread in waves that devoured darkness.” The Priestesses are convulsing in the temple and the male priests/acolytes flee. Rake arrives, the “blood of Tiam ran riot through him, fired to life by the conflation of chaotic sorcery.” Rake tells Endest to come with him to the Temple, saying “The crime of this day rests with Mother Dark,” and Endest realizes Rake means to confront her.


Endest sits in his room feeling the “stain of Light upon his soul.” He recalls Rake telling him to hold the way open for him despite how Mother Dark might rage against Endest. When Endest replies he has sworn his life to Mother Dark and that she is the creator of them all, Rake responds, “Yes, and she will answer for it.” On their way, Rake asks if Endest will await him on the “day at the very end . . . Until the moment when you must betray me . . . You will know the time, you will know it and know it well.” Endest remembers another conversation, a recent one when Rake asked what was rising in the Great Barrow—if it was Itkovian, if Itkovian was becoming a new god. Endest had to say he didn’t know, as he’d been “closed to such things . . . since that day in the Temple.” Rake had apologized for forgetting and said he’d ask Spinnock. Endest thinks he still waits (for that moment).


Back in the early flashback time, heading for the Temple Endess and Rake walk past the bodies “of various factions: Silchas Ruin’s. Andarist’s, and Anomander’s own. Drethdenan’s, Hish Tulla’s, Vanut Degalla’s.” Before Rake reaches the doors, Mother Dark’s voice speaks, telling him “Be warned, Anomander, dear son, from Andii blood is born a new world . . . You and your kin are no longer alone, no longer free to play your vicious games. There are now others.” Rake tells her he is neither surprised nor horrified, adding, “It could never be enough, to be naught but a mother, to create with hands closed upon no one. To yield so much of yourself, only to find us your only reward—us slayers, us betrayers.” She is horrified to realize he has Tiam’s blood in him and he tells her “Like you, I have chosen to embrace change . . . There will be wars between us (the Andii and the others), and so I shall unite the Andii. Resistance is ending. Andarist, Drethdenan, Vanut Degalla. Silchas is fleeing, and so too Hish Tulla and Manalle. Civil strife is now over.” Mother Dark replies, “You have killed Tiam. Do you realize what you have begun? Silchas flees, yes, and where do you think he goes? And the newborn, the others, what scent will draw them now, what taste of chaotic power? In murder you seek peace and now the blood flows and there shall be no peace, not ever again. I forsake you Anomander Blood of Tiam. I deny my first children all. You shall wander the realms, bereft of purpose. Your deeds shall avail you nothing. Your lives shall spawn death unending. The Dark—my heart—is closed to you, to you all.”


Spinnock muses on the eventual fate of his sword as he oils it in the High Priestess’ room. He notes the Priestess has walked more often lately in the Darkness and asks if Mother Dark has forgiven them. She laughs bitterly and tells him the “visions are growing more fraught.”


Spinnock heads for the tavern and his game with Seerdomin, whom he knows is troubled by something having to do with the Great Barrow, something that has caused his friend to give up his daily trips there. He worries that Seerdomin’s loss of faith will mean his own loss of hope. He stops to visit a priestess of the Redeemer and asks if there is a crisis of faith among them. She tells him Seerdomin “denies us in our need,” though she won’t say what that need is. She does say Spinnock can’t help his friend, and that she and the believers “await the Redeemer, to end that which afflicts his followers.” When she adds the Redeemer is unafraid of the Dark, Spinnock warns her it would be unwise for the Redeemer to think of embracing the Andii, for “such an embrace will destroy him. Utterly.” And, he thinks to himself, “us as well.” He offers to help, but she refuses aid from him or Rake.


Kallor walks the plains of Lamath, musing on the futility of history, of the ephemeral nature of achievement, the banality of life and death. He kills a hare. He doesn’t care.


Amanda’s Reaction

So, let’s just contemplate this for a second. Traveller has been shipwrecked, his ship filled with corpses. He has gone for three days without water and at least as many without food. But when a bear attacks him, he takes it down, despite grievous wounds. A freaking bear. Yep, Traveller is totally the Chuck Norris of this chapter... Interesting aside there, regarding the fact that because he and Hood had such a fervent disagreement, now Traveller has nowhere to go in the event of death.

It’s funny reading the paragraph dealing with that sapling showing nature taking over the huts once inhabited by a long-lost tribe. I say that because I was walking last weekend around what was once a theme park in England, many years ago. It was like a post-apocalyptic experience, what with the deserted carpark—simply acres of empty space—and the signs pointing to what used to be the entrance. And, even there, nature was beginning to find a way to claw back what was taken from it: moss spreading across the concrete, cracks where tree roots were shifting. It’s truly amazing—and this paragraph reminds me of that: “No wound was too deep to heal. No outrage too horrendous to one day be irrelevant.”

I love this idea: “Nimander wondered if he had discovered the face of the one true god. Naught else but time, this ever changing and yet changeless tyrant against whom no creature could win.” This is the sort of god that I could see as truth!

Poor Nimander, utterly haunted by his past and what he sees as his failures. He doesn’t seem quite sane right now, with these voices echoing in his head. I’m going to be interested to see Nimander’s journey here. It strikes me that he’s either going to descend into madness and cause all manner of problems, or he is going to find some sort of redemption in this journey to Anomander and afterwards.

Scarecrows? Or are those rag-bound figures something more sinister? Ever since watching Human Nature (Dr Who) recently, scarecrows are not something I really want to think about! Yep, suspicions confirmed—dead people. These Tiste Andii are real innocents and unaware of the world if their first thought was scarecrow.

Ah, how true is this? “Necessity, now there’s a word to feed every outrage on decency.”

Saemankelyk? This is from the Dying God? This is the kelyk we’ve seen mentioned previously?

Pilgrims have started to attend the Great Barrow where Itkovian is buried? Isn’t this the sort of thing that can inspire ascendance and impending godhood?

I sincerely like that Seerdomin wears his uniform to go to the Great Barrow—wearing his guilt openly, as Erikson puts it. It shows a humble regard for what happened and respect to those who fell, I think. Although you could look at it another, darker way—what would people think if, say, someone wore an SS uniform on pilgrimage to a place where Jews were killed as part of the Holocaust? I hesitate to mention that, but in some respects it is the same as what Seerdomin does here (no offence meant, please don’t take any, just looking for a way to relate it).

I like the idea that the more recent offerings on the Barrow might seem mundane, but offer more wealth because the people giving them could ill afford to lose what they give. Now that reminds me of the little church mice in the Disney version of Robin Hood—giving away their one saved coin.

Who is this woman who calls Seerdomin Benighted? To which people does she belong? And is she saying that the threat of Seerdomin is what protects those who come to the Barrow? I wasn’t quite clear on that.

Ah, such intriguing glimpses into Kharkanas and what happened when Anomander fell out with Mother Dark—when can we read Forge of Darkness?

This line: “See me, Lord, see how I still wait.” Endest Silann is one of the saddest characters we’ve seen yet—such unwavering loyalty, such pain as he still serves his Lord as a shadow of his former self. I am loving the melancholy, but it is deeply sad.

Does Mother Dark know something of what is to come, when she talks about chaotic power?

I can see some denseness emerging in Erikson’s prose here, to characterise the chapters where he deals with the Tiste Andii. I guess because they ponder weighty matters we end up hearing about them, but it can make it slightly hard going. Mind, you all know that I am not as much a fan of the philosophical leanings as Bill is!

This kelyk is being dripped into the story here and there, with another mention from Spinnock. This mention seems to imply that the Tiste Andii find it a benefit of the new world they inhabit. Do they know its origins? Is this why the Tiste Andii are sinking under the weight of ennui?

Wait a minute! Is this conversation between the Priestess of the Redeemer and Spinnock implying that Itkovian might embrace the Tiste Andii and take on their grief and pain?

Kallor as well stepping onto the page? The players are truly gathering at this point, aren’t they?


Bill’s Reaction

I just want to point out some of the language surrounding Traveller’s landing on shore

  • “Another wave descended onto the wreck like an enormous fist...”
  • “...dragging the entire hull back into the deeper water.”

And surrounding the bear: “it was driven from the grasslands inland onto this barren, lifeless coast.”

Note the active nature of those descriptions and file that away. I’d also point out that despite it seeming a life-threatening event, it is actually pretty fortuitous apparently that the plains bear attacked, seeing as how Traveller was near death from dehydration and starvation, especially as this land seems a bit barren.

Also, yes, file away that thought re Hood: “When a man has forsaken Hood, the final gate is closed. Oblivion or the torment of a journey without end—there was no telling what fate awaited such a man. In any case, Traveller was in no hurry to discover an answer. No, he would invite Hood to find it himself.”

Note how we have an early musing in this chapter on the ephemeral nature of civilization and we close with Kallor’s musings on the same topic. One which we’ve seen many a time in this series as again and again people walk over pottery shards, over old stone tools, over once-living now-dead cities, etc. The whole series in many ways is “Ozymandias” writ large. It’s an interesting theme, set against the long-lived characters we also see.

I too like Nimander’s lines in this vein as to whether or not the one true god (how often has that phrase been used?) is simply Time itself. The following lines are some of Erikson’s most poetic as well.

That’s a sharp characterization of Desra: “This was how she seduced men, by giving back to them versions of themselves.” As well as a sharp indictment of those so seduced.

And speaking of indictments: “Necessity, now there’s a word to feed every outrage on decency.” Sure and we could put that on humanity’s tombstone.

Yep Amanda, this is the same kelyk mentioned earlier.

OK, we’ve got a few gods to keep straight in this book now—the Dying God, the Crippled God, and the Redeemer. Just a fair warning to try and keep them all straight going forward.

The “scarecrows” are bad enough, but how about this simile used for the plants: “their skull-sized rootballs lined like rows of children’s heads . . .” Clip: “Tonight, no one drinks.” Ya think?

Lots of ghosts and haunting in this book: Seerdomin here walking through ghosts on his way to the barrow. Nimander’s ghosts. The ghosts down in the basement of K’rul’s bar. People haunted by regret: Murillio, Challice. Endest haunted by his memories. The book begins seemingly with a pair of ghosts. People thought dead (Rallick, Vorcan) returning. The killed in Dragnipur.

And a lot of guilt/regret to go with it, and thus some who feel the need for atonement, as Seerdomin attempts to achieve at least slightly by wearing his uniform, “although he well knew that some things could never be purged, and that redemption was a dream of the deluded.” Is he right?

If one weren’t already led to like this character, I think this prayer alone might do it—one who kneels and asks the god for nothing for himself. One who sees what is being done to the god, or the once mortal soul, and pities it, feels compassion for how it is “armoured” and feels empathy for its loneliness, and so offers the god simple “company.”

Must. Not. Reference. Forge. Of Darkness. My ship. My crew....

This is an interesting POV from Endest with regard to Rake’s confronting Mother Dark: “Youth was a time for harsh judgment. Such fires ebbed with age. Certainty itself withered.” Followed by “The fool fell into line . . . followed the first who called. The fool gave away—with cowardly relief—all rights to think, to choose, to find his own path. And so Endest Silann walked the crimson corridors . . . two strides behind Anomander.” We’ve been conditioned I think to view Rake’s choices as “right.” But these lines seems to cast at least a little doubt on that. Those last few lines are also interesting outside of the Andii context if one applies them to the many gods we see here—what do those lines say about the followers of the Redeemer? Of the Dying God? The Crippled God? Any god? One could also ask that about his later lines regarding loyalty: “the exchange that was surrender in both directions. From one, all will, from the other, all freedom.”

And talk about ominous—what will that day of betrayal be? And if it’s mentioned here, can we assume it’s coming up?

That sounds like a heck of a curse from Mother Dark. I guess at this point I’ll just say file all this away and we’ll see what comes up in comments.

Poor Endest. Despair just seeps from these pages.

And then on to Spinnock’s musings of the inevitable loss of his sword, including what he prefers not to think of, it lying rusting in the grass next to his own bones: Look on my works, Ye Mighty... And then his fear that Seerdomin’s problems will take from Spinnock the only thing holding him back from despair.

And there’s a mind-shaking thought—the Redeemer taking on the grief of the Andii. If that of the Imass was almost too much for him, what then of the Andii? It boggles the mind to think of. As far as the Andii and their ennui, no Amanda, the kelyk has nothing to do with that—it’s what they’ve been facing for ages. It is why Rake does what he does (or did)—flying around in Moon’s Spawn, taking on causes. Keeping his people engaged in the world, trying to keep the embers from falling coldly into ash.

And after all the despair and ennui of the Andii, we see Kallor feeling the same sense of all things pass, having the same question—what makes anything worth doing? And so does doing merely become opposing “banality”? And if that is all “doing” is for, than does that mean one can “do” anything?

Well, I’ve said we’ve got arrivals yet to come, and this chapter opens and closes with two: Traveller’s to begin, and Kallor’s to end. More pieces onto the board. And all roads, apparently, lead to Darujhistan. Can you say convergence?

Amanda Rutter is the editor of Strange Chemistry books, sister imprint to Angry Robot.

Bill Capossere writes short stories and essays, plays ultimate frisbee, teaches as an adjunct English instructor at several local colleges, and writes SF/F reviews for

1. sonnyjjchiba
I love the final lines of the chapter, in which we are told that the meaning Kallor seeks in the eyes of those he murders will ironically never be found simply because they have all retreated in terror from the emptiness of Kallor's regard. "The world gives back what is given," and since Kallor has nothing to offer, he is offered nothing - he's doomed to ignorance by the observer effect. And then the final twist of irony's knife: that Kallor would sooner execute someone for telling him this than listen to them.

Fantastic stuff; Kallor is one of my favourite characters in the series, and I'm happy that he's back to being written by Erikson, since I was disappointed in the moustache-twirling villain role he was given in RotCG.
2. aaronthere
"...leaving a wake of splintered wood, lines and tattered sail." wink.
Chris Hawks
3. SaltManZ
When I first read that scarecrow scene I totally had flashbacks to Dan Simmons' Ilium.

And man, awesome as those Kharkanas flashbacks are, they really seem at odds with FoD. But it's too early (in the Khark trilogy) to say for sure.

When did we last see Traveller in SE's series? It feels weird to have just read about him sailing around the globe with Kyle in RotCG, then ending up walking around Quon Tali, and now suddenly he shipwrecks on (presumably) Genebackis. But maybe it's just me.
4. Tufty
And man, awesome as those Kharkanas flashbacks are, they really seem at odds with FoD. But it's too early (in the Khark trilogy) to say for sure.
So are many things :P

But who knows, maybe the seemingly-important figures mentioned here who didn't show up in FoD will show up in FoL/WiS. After all, FoL take place 100 years after FoD for all we know. Just have to wait and see.
Steven Halter
5. stevenhalter
SaltManZ@3:I think that we last saw Traveller in SE in HoC. When he is defending the throne in Drift Avalii.
6. Kjtherock
Remember to that over time a persons memory of events from the past may not be as accurate as they were when it happened. After half a million years his memory may not be as accurate as we might like.
Chris Hawks
7. SaltManZ
@5: That's what I thought. It seems plausible to me that he goes from Drift Avalii to washing up on the shores of Genebackis; his meanwhile-during-RotCG stuff seems like it doesn't quite fit.

@4/6: Yeah, yeah, I know all the usual caveats about unreliable narrators and whatever. It's just weird to go back to this stuff for the first time and see that it doesn't exactly fit, but if I tilt my head sideways and squint just right, then maaaaybe...
8. Eon8472
One of my favourite chapters in the entire series. And all because of the Kallor/Traveller sections. 2 men walking in wastelands. One at the very extremities of life, trying to achieve an impossible goal, desperatly holding on because he is afraid of what will happen to him after death. The other the definition of cynical old man having achieved multiple goals but finding them to be emotionally hollow. They both have animals for dinner with Traveller having to fight for his life first and a gruesome desperate dinner afterwards, and Kallor making the ultimate knife throw. (And he even reproaches himself for hitting the rabbit in the gut!)

And after 5-4 rereads, I have only now considered the words: "Cut and bloodless corpses.."
Is it possible that Traveller had to drink the blood of his dead shipmates? The same actions as what he did with the bear blood? Wow.
Brian R
9. Mayhem
I actually see a lot of similarities in Seerdomin's behaviour to that of some of the former SS - a number of Waffen-SS units served as elite combat forces in the Russian Front, and had very little to do with the Holocaust. I can easily see a senior member of those forces, proud of his abilities and conduct yet tainted by association and disgusted by his own weakness at not doing anything to prevent it, reaching out for any form of redemption but knowing it was forever beyond grasp.

Wearing the uniform is probably a step too far for us today, but for Seerdomin it externalises his self loathing, and forces him to confront his history at all times, rather than hiding in the crowd. And that very act marks him as a greater soul than his former colleagues, all of whom are now part of the huddled masses, denying their part. It's probably a large part of why the people still respect him personally.

Seerdomin also reminds me a lot of Eastwood's William Munny from Unforgiven - a man with a past he cannot hide from, and little hope of a future.
Paul Boyd
10. GoodOldSatan
My favorite line in this chapter comes early ... "Alas, its plague of misfortunes was unending." Says alot.

My questions, too, relate to Kharkanas: Sichas? Flees? Who/what is "the newborn"? and re: Endest ... it seems as if (here) he remembers as an acolyte agreeing to abandon (betray?) MD at Anomander's mere request. (or did I misread that?)

Have we met Spinock's High Priestess previously?
A minor lost memory ... there are K'Chain Che'Malle buried in the barrows?
11. Karsa_is_coming_soon
Interesting aside there, regarding the fact that because he and Hood had such a fervent disagreement, now Traveller has nowhere to go in the event of death.

Kallor/Traveller sections. 2 men walking in wastelands. One at the very extremities of life, trying to achieve an impossible goal, desperatly holding on because he is afraid of what will happen to him after death
I think this is missing a very, very important point. From RoTG (56% in location 11091 on my Kindle)

Traveller rolled his shoulders, wincing. "my life is now my own, magus. It can no longer be taken by anyone"Traveller is just about the last person to worry about dying. He just has to avoid making the choice.
Kartik Nagar
12. BloodRaven
These flashbacks to the ancient history of Tiste Andii are like a puzzle. They are not narrated linearly in time, (we will later see flashbacks which are before the event described here), and we have no idea about the other characters being talked about (such as Hish tulla, Drethdenan, etc.). As far as the events in this chapter are concerned, all I could gather was that there was a civil war among the Andii, and Rake drank the blood of Tiam (possibly killing Tiam in the process) to gain an advantage over other factions. Mother Dark was not pleased with this turn of events, since other factions will also now thirst after the blood of Tiam and the lure of chaotic power (possibly some relation between the two). One thing that I don't understand, is that it seems Rake won the battle, and even though Mother Dark turns away, why did Rake and other Andii leave Kharkanas?
13. Tufty
@Salt-Man, re #5: "That's what I thought. It seems plausible to me that he goes from Drift Avalii to washing up on the shores of Genebackis; his meanwhile-during-RotCG stuff seems like it doesn't quite fit."
Traveller timeline:

1. (HoC) Shows up on Drift Avalii with shipwrecked Malazans, fights off the Edur, gets Vengeance/Grief.
2. Stays on Drift Avalii, defending the Throne of Shadow against the Edur for a time, to honour Andarist.
3. Leaves Drift Avalii (presumably by boat) (before Iccy can show up in tBH)
4. Captured by Koreli/Marese and brought to the Stormwall
5. Fights on the Stormwall for a little while
6. (RotCG flashback) Ereko jailbreaks him out (they go back for his sword)
7. (RotCG) Travels south into Stratum with Ereko. Kills more Edur when they show up on the west coast where the duo are building a boat. Inspires a shamaness who was with the Edur (and who is apparently human, so someone like Feather Witch).
8. Leaves Stratum with Ereko, Kyle and the Lost Brothers by boat
9. Gets really pissed at the thaumaturgs on Jacuruku (and presumably gets sand just plain everywhere)
10. Sails to the Dolmens of Tien. Ereko dies. Stabs Kallor. Unearths K'azz, who pretends to be a local named Jan and joins them.
11. They sail north.
12. A magic storm chases and eats them. They wind up in Shadow.
13. They follow a weird priest dude to Shadowhouse. Traveller says mean things to Ammanas and Cotillion. Osseric shows up. A bhok'aral puts everyone at ease. Kyle, Jan and the Lost Brothers leave, but Traveller sticks around for a pint with his ol' shadow buddies.
14. Temper and Ferrule confront Skinner, motivating Traveller to teleport to Quon Tali and fight Skinner. He whoops ass, then disappears.
15. As Dessembrae, shows up for a bit more to mourn Ullen.
16. Gets a new ship to sail away with. Heads out east to Genebackis.
17. Storms destroy his ship and kill the crew.
18. (TtH) Lands on the coast. EATS THE HEART OF A BEAR
19-??. To be continued...

(Seriously, when will he learn that him and travelling by ship are just NOT compatible?)
Eric Desjardins
15. SirExo
@13 (Seriously, when will he learn that him and travelling by ship are just NOT compatible?)

Just, lol.
Kris Fisher
16. AndaristRuin
First time poster, long time MBoF fan.

Bill and Amanda, Thank you for this site! I love it and I have learned so much for these re-reads.

Tufty, your knowledge of this series is extremely thorough. Is there some way to communicate with you on another site to ask to direct questions? I don't want to ruin it for Amanda.
Bill Capossere
17. Billcap
Tufty--thanks for that great timeline (and that great closing line).

Mayhem, very nice comparisons with Seerdomin's there

Goodold--I don't think you're misreading that (if I"m not misreading what you said)

Andarist--glad you're enjoying the reread!
Steven Halter
18. stevenhalter
AndaristRuin@16:There is a Malazan spoiler thread here.
19. Tufty

Join the forums! There's lots of very knowledgeable people there who love a good discussion! I'm D'rek :P
Nisheeth Pandey
20. Nisheeth
Looking at the definition of Benighted, I noticed this other meaning:
Overtaken by night or darkness.
21. Jordanes
@ 8

I think the bloodless corpses has more to do with propitiations to Mael. An Elder God of the Seas requires blood.
Sydo Zandstra
23. Fiddler
Didn't know you were D'rek, Tufty :)

I'm BridgeBurner, am a passive member though.
Steven Halter
24. stevenhalter
D'rek is Tufty Tufty is D'rek.

That will actually make a lot of sense in a weird fashion before too long.
Iris Creemers
25. SamarDev
@ Amanda
Saemankelyk? This is from the Dying God? This is the kelyk we’ve seen mentioned previously?
If I remember correctly, this is not the case. There is a difference between the 'normal' Kelyk (as widely drunk and as Gruntle transported), or the Saemankelyk (with the black mouth stains).

@ Tufty: to echo others: great timeline! (although timeline is not important ;-))
George A
26. Kulp
I like how the scene with Seerdomin reflects our theme of empathy. The trinkets that are "worth less" are actually worth more to the people who leave them. It requires empathy to see these trinkets as valuable.

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