The Wheel of Time Companion: “Old Tongue” Dictionary (Excerpt)

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Did you know “Mat” actually means “control” in the language of The Wheel of Time’s Old Tongue?

Leading up to the release of The Wheel of Time Companion on November 3, and Harriet McDougal, Alan Romanczuk, and Maria Simons are excerpting portions and entries from its massive store of notes, illustrations, and encyclopedia entries. Unfamiliar with the Companion? Long-time series editor and Robert Jordan’s wife Harriet explains its compilation here and offers a thank you to fans of the series.

Today, we’re offering a glimpse at the Old Tongue dictionary tucked inside the Companion’s pages: the listings for M, N, and O. The full dictionary itself includes additional sections on popular phrases, pluralization, construction of verbs, how apostrophes work, and more.

Read more excerpts from The Wheel of Time Companion at this link.



m—(prefix) means “of”
ma—(prefix) indicates importance
ma—(v.) “you give”
maani—(adv.) very
maast—(adj.) necessary
machin—(n.) destruction
Machin Shin—(n.) “journey of destruction”; the Black Wind, a major threat in the Ways
mad—(adj.) loud
mael—(n.) hope
mafal—(n.) mouth or pass
Mafal Dadaranell—(n.) “pass at the father of mountain ranges”; ancient name for Fal Dara
magami—(n.) little uncle; what Amalisa called King Easar in private
mageen—(n.) daisy
mah’alleinir—(n.) he who soars; literally “seeking man of the stars”; the name Perrin gave to his Power- wrought hammer
mahdi—(n.) seeker; used for leader of Tuatha’an caravan
mahdi’in—(n.) seekers
mahrba—(v.) paint
mai—(n.) maiden(s)
makitai—(n.) wheel
mamai—(n. & adj.) future
mamu—(n.) mother
man—(adj.) related to blade/sword (“man” has the same root as “war,” “violence” or “aggression”)
mandarb—(n.) blade; name of Lan’s stallion
Manetheren—(n.) mountain home; one of the Ten Nations
manetherendrelle—(n.) waters of the mountain home
manive—(v.) drive
manivin—(n.) driving
manshima—(n.) sword/blade
manshimaya—(n.) my own sword
mar—(n.) game
maral—(adj.) destined
marath—(prefi x) indicates that something must be done, suggesting urgency; Seanchan word
marath’damane—(n.) those who must be leashed/one who must be leashed; Seanchan term
marcador—(n.) hammer
marna—(v.) swim
maromi—(v.) crush
mashi—(n. & v.) love
mashiara—(n.) my love; but a hopeless love, perhaps already lost; Lan to Nynaeve
masnad—(n.) trade
maspil—(n.) butter
mastri—(n.) fish
mat—(v.) control
matuet—(adj.) important
ma’vron—(n.) watchers of importance
mawaith—(n.) reaction
medan—(n.) sugar
melaz—(n.) inn
melimo—(n.) apple
mera—(prep.) without; lacking
Mera’din—(n.) the Brotherless; used by Aiel
merwon—(adj.) boiling
mesaana—(n.) teacher of lessons;
name of one of the Forsaken
mestani—(n.) lessons
mestrak—(n.) necessity
m’hael—(n.) leader (capitalized implies “Supreme Leader”; title Taim gave himself)
mi—(poss. pron.) my
mia—(pron.) me; myself
Mia’cova—(n.) One Who Owns Me, My Owner; term used by Moghedien after she was enslaved by a mindtrap
miere—(n.) ocean/waves
mikra—(n.) shame
min—(adj.) little
minyat—(adj.) eight, a quantifier of material objects
minye—(adj.) eight, descriptive of the immaterial, such as ideas, arguments or propositions
miou—(n.) cat
mirhage—(n.) pain, or the promise or expectation of pain
misain—(v.) am (insistent; emphatic)
mist—(n. & adj.) middle
mitris—(adj.) dirty
modan—(n.) approval
moghedien—(n.) a particular breed of spider; small, deadly poisonous and extremely reclusive; name of a Forsaken
mokol—(n.) milk
mon—(adj.) related to scythe
moodi—(adj.) frequent
mora—(n.) the people or a population
morasu—(n.) morning
morat—(n. prefix) handler/controller; i.e., one who handles or controls; used by the Seanchan (as in morat’raken, one who handles raken)
mordero—(adj.) death
moridin—(n.) a grave; tomb; also, the name of a Forsaken, for whom the word’s meaning refers to death
moro—(adv. & conj.) so
mos—(adj., adv. & prep.) down
mosai—(adj.) low
mosiel—(v.) lower
mosiev—(adj.) lowered or downcast
motai—(n.) Aiel name for a sweet crunchy grub found in the Waste
mourets—(n.) mushroom(s)
mozhlit—(adj.) possible
m’taal—(adj.) of stone
muad—(n., adj. & adv.) foot/on foot/afoot
muad’drin—(n.) infantry/footmen
muaghde—(n.) meat
mukhrat—(adj.) private
mund—(adj.) high
mustiel—(n.) sock
mystvo—(n.) office



n—(prep. prefi x) means “of” or “from”
nabir—(n.) fire
nachna—(n.) science
nadula—(n.) force
Nae’blis—(n.) title of Shai’tan’s first lieutenant
nag—(n.) day
nagaru—(n.) snake
nahobo—(adj.) full
nahodil—(n.) cushion
nai—(n.) knife, dagger, blade; a blade smaller than a sword’s blade; can be used in modification also to mean “stabbing”
nais—(v.) smell
naito—(n.) flame
nak—(pron.) who
nakhino—(n.) month
n’am—(adj.) beautiful
naparet—(adj.) parallel
nar’baha—(n.) traveling boxes; literally, “fool box”; used by Sammael
nardes—(n.) thought
narfa—(adj.) foolish
nasai—(n., v. & adj.) wrong
nausig—(n.) boat
navyat—(adj.) nine, a quantifier of material objects
navye—(adj.) nine, descriptive of the immaterial, such as ideas, arguments or propositions
nayabo—(n.) prison
n’baid—(adj.) automatic
n’dore—(adj.) of/from the mountains
neb—(n.) mist
nedar—(n.) tusked water pig found in the Drowned Lands
neidu—(adj.) new
neisen—(adv.) why
nemhage—(n.) distribution
nen—(suffix) like adding “er” to an English verb, indicating one who or that which does, or those who cause
nesodhin—(prep.) through; through this; through it
ni—(prep.) for
niende—(adj.) lost
nieya—(v.) step
ninte—(poss. pron.) your (used more formally than “ninto”)
ninto—(poss. pron.) your
nirdayn—(n.) hate
no—(conj.) but
no—(pron.) me
nob—(v.) cut
nodavat—(n.) produce
nolve—(v.) give
nolvae—(v.) is given
nor—(n.) cutter or slicer
no’ri—(n.) ancient game now called stones
norvenne—(n.) account
nosane—(v.) speak
nothru—(n.) nose
noup—(adj. & adv.) only
nupar—(n.) base, as in bottom or support
nush—(adj.) deep
nyala—(n.) country
nye—(adv.) again
Nym—(n.) a construct from the Age of Legends, a being who has beneficial effects on trees and other living things


o—(adj.) a
ob—(conj.) or
obaen—(n.) a musical instrument of the Age of Legends
obanda—(n.) door
obidum—(n.) spade
obiyar—(n.) position
obrafad—(n.) view
obram—(n.) impulse
ocarn—(n.) toe
odashi—(n.) weather
odi—(pron. & adj.) some
odik—(n.) secretary
oghri—(n.) sky
ohimat—(n.) comparison
olcam—(n.) tin
olesti—(n.) pants
olghan—(n.) drawer
olivem—(n.) pencil
olma—(n. & adj.) poor
ombrede—(n. & v.) rain
on—(suffix) denotes plural form
onadh—(n.) arch
onguli—(n.) ring
onir—(n.) star(s)
oosquai—(n.) a distilled spirit; used by Aiel
orcel—(n.) pig
ordeith—(n.) wormwood; name taken by Padan Fain among the Whitecloaks
orichu—(n. & v.) plow
orobar—(n.) danger
ortu—(adj.) open
orvieda—(v.) print
osan—(adj.) left-hand or left-side
osan’gar—(n.) left-hand dagger; name of a Forsaken
ospouin—(n.) hospital
ost—(prep.) on
otiel—(n.) sponge
otou—(n. & adj.) top
otyat—(adj.) four, a quantifier of material objects
otye—(adj.) four, descriptive of the immaterial, such as ideas, arguments or propositions
ounadh—(n.) wine
ovage—(n.) window
o’vin—(n.) a promise; agreement
ozela—(n.) goat


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